Small-enterprise-opportunities-in-MSWM2

Documentation / Jurnal

Share on Social Networks

Share Link

Use permanent link to share in social media

Share with a friend

Please login to send this document by email!

Embed in your website

Select page to start with

Post comment with email address (confirmation of email is required in order to publish comment on website) or please login to post comment

1. This article was downloaded by: [Wageningen UR] On: 31 July 2007 Access Details: [subscription number 768417225] Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Development in Practice Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713412875 Small enterprise opportunities in municipal solid waste management John P. Grierson; Ato Brown Online Publication Date: 01 February 1999 To cite this Article: Grierson, John P. and Brown, Ato (1999) 'Small enterprise opportunities in municipal solid waste management', Development in Practice, 9:1, 193 - 198 To link to this article: DOI: 10.1080/09614529953377 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09614529953377 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents will be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug doses should be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss, actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material. © Taylor and Francis 2007

3. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 Joh n P . Grierso n an d At o B ro w n T e chnis c he Z usa m m enarbe it G m bH (G T Z ); a nd a nu m be r of f oundat ions , N G Os , r e- sea r ch group s an d institu tions , an d pro - f essiona l sp e ci a list s in th e ® el d of M S W M . I ts ® r st m eetin g w as he ld in A pri l 199 5 in S w itze r lan d (U M P / S D C/ S K AT 1995 ) f ol - lo w ed by a w orksho p hel d in Cair o in O cto - be r 1996 . T he the m e of thi s w orksho p w as ` exp a ndin g e nterpr is e involv em en t in M SW M ’ , an d partic ipant s w er e charge d w it h th e tas k of dev e lopin g practi ca l guide - lin e s to suppor t eff e ctiv e public ± privat e pa r tnersh ips . Expandin g enterpris e involve - ment in MSWM P ublic ± privat e pa r tne r ship s a re a relati vel y ne w an d innova tiv e approa ch to m unicip al servic e pr ovision , partic ul a rl y in A frica . D ocu m e nte d e xpe r ienc e is m odest ; r el a - tiv e ly littl e is kno w n abou t ho w th e publi c a nd privat e sector s ca n w or k tog e the r eff e c- tiv e ly , or abou t ho w publi c ± privat e partne r- ship s w il l affe c t th e evolut io n of publi c secto r r espons ibiliti es . A ve r y larg e pa r t of th e cur r en t pr ivat e se c to r involve m en t in m unicip al servic es is th e resul t of th e pr i- vat e se c to r si m pl y m ovin g in to gr as p th e oppo r tunitie s cr eate d by gr ow in g de m and , a pheno m eno n readil y app a ren t in th e ® el d of w ast e m an a ge m ent . M SW M re sponsib ilitie s a re inc r easing ly bein g ab a ndone d to m arke t f or ces , w it h infor m al , irr e gular , an d eve n ill e ga l enterp rise s of te n in th e le a d in takin g a dvanta ge of thes e opport unities . T hi s dr a- m ati c an d im per f ec t proces s ha s se r ve d to de m onst r at e bot h th e potent ia l of th e privat e secto r to suppl y M SW M se r vice s an d th e ne e d to c o- op t an d focu s thi s potent ia l throug h a greate r degre e of `pa r tnersh ip ’ bet w ee n th e publi c a nd privat e secto r s ( Sch u È bele r et al . 1996) . T he re is an em e rg - in g re alisat io n tha t the r e is at han d th e oppo r tunit y to m ov e beyon d m e rel y a llow - in g th e privat e secto r to `r us h in ’ , to w ar ds w orkin g wit h th e pr ivat e se c to r in or de r to e xpan d over a ll capaci ty to `r e ac h out ’ . T he privat e se c to r ha s th e capaci ty to ra is e c apital , to m obilis e lat e nt m at e ria l an d person ne l r esourc es , an d to appl y thes e quickl y an d ef ® ci e ntl y to th e m ar ke t fo r M S W M se r vic e s. T he publi c se cto r ha s th e opport unity Ð inde e d, m an y ar gue , th e re - sponsib ility Ð to a ttra c t an d co - op t thes e c a- paciti es w hil e c ontinui ng to provid e th e st r at e gi c direct ion , th e poli c y fra m ew ork , an d th e c ontex t of societ al value s tha t m us t sti m ulat e an d shap e th e gro w in g m ar ke t fo r M S W M servic es . T he natu r e of th e ne ed is cl e ar an d vis - ible . C ities , m unicip alitie s, neighb ourhoo ds , an d squ a tte r ar ea s ar e be in g over w hel m ed w it h w aste . As M ustaph a T olb a ha s suc - cinctl y im plied : m an y of thos e w ho a re idl e or under - em ploye d am id thi s w ast e coul d be produ c tivel y em ploye d in coll e cting , so r t- ing , transp orting , a nd pr ocessi ng it . T he eyesor e of ill- m a nage d ur ba n wa st e is bu t th e ti p of a we ll-und erstoo d e nviron m ent a l iceber g: ef ® cien t a nd sustain abl e natura l re - sour c e us e an d ac c eptabl e standa rd s of pub - li c healt h ar e threat ene d by inadeq uat e an d inef ® cien t m unicip al w ast e m anage m e nt . T he na tur e of th e pa r tnersh ip s ne ede d to addres s suc h proble m s an d captur e th e at - tend a nt opport unitie s is m uc h les s clea r . W hat , indeed , is a `publi c secto r ± privat e secto r pa r tnersh ip ’ ? W ha t a re it s ch a racter is - ti c s a nd practi ca l r ealiti es ? W ha t e ffe c t wil l thes e ne w re lation ship s hav e on existin g re sponsib ilitie s? T he ur ba n m anage m en t ini - ti a tiv e re porte d on he re , an d th e pra c tica l experi m ent s of m an y m unicip aliti e s w orld - w id e , ar e se ekin g to clarif y a nd docu m en t th e answ e rs to thes e dif ® cul t qu e stions . W hil e exper t kno w ledg e is ad m ittedl y stil l m odest , ther e is a broad- base d re cognit io n of th e nee d to det e rm in e be st pr actic e . A ® r m bas e ha s bee n est a blished ; state m ent s of basi c pr incipl e s an d use f ul pra c tica l guidel ine s ar e beginn in g to e m erg e in sup - por t of ef fort s to e volv e ef f ectiv e `pa r tnersh ips ’ . Public ± privat e partnership s Cons e nsu s an d clarit y shoul d not , ho w eve r , 194 D evelop me nt in Practi ce , V olu m e 9, Nu m ber s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

7. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 M ari e È ll e Sne l A to B row n is a n infras tructu r e planni ng a nd m anage m en t specia lis t w it h ove r te n years ’ e xpe r ienc e wit h th e W orl d Ban k an d SK A T a nd on U N D P/ U N IC E F projec ts . H is ar ea s of inte r es t includ e sanita tion , soli d w ast e m anage m ent , urba n planni ng , an d w ate r suppl y prog r am m es in A fr ic a an d A sia . H e is curren tl y W ast e M anage m e nt S pe ci a lis t a t th e U N D P- W orl d Ban k W ate r a nd Sanit a tio n Progra m m e in K enya . C ontac t de ta ils : RW SG -E S A , T he W orl d B ank , PO Bo x 30577 , N airobi , K enya . F ax: 1 25 4 (2 ) 720408 ; E -m ail : , fbro w [email protected] w orldb a nk.o r g . . An innovativ e community- base d wast e disposa l schem e in Hyderabad M ari e È ll e Sne l Introduction A co m m unity- bas e d volunta ry w ast e dis - pos a l sche m e, im pl e m ente d in 199 2 in H yderab ad , is on e of th e ® rs t of it s kin d in I ndi a bein g launch ed by a n urba n civi c bod y w it h th e a ssistan ce of N G O s an d co m - m unity - ba se d organi sa tion s (C B Os) . 1 Its purpos e is to hel p kee p ne ighbour hood s (o r c olonies , as the y ar e of te n calle d in I ndia ) c le a n as we ll as to m ak e it quicke r an d m or e e ffecti ve to lif t wa st e wit h th e hel p of em - ploye e s of loc a l or ga nisatio ns ; to involv e w aste-p ick e rs w ho collec t th e w aste ; an d in orde r to develo p a favour abl e socia l cli m at e w ithi n w hic h to educat e citize ns on th e im portan ce an d e cono m ic valu e of w aste . T he inclus io n of w aste - picker s fr om th e infor m al recycl in g secto r pr ovide s a m ai n linkag e to th e for m al se cto r of M unicip al W a st e M anage m e nt (M W M ). 2 T hey ar e not onl y capabl e of handli ng th e coll e ctio n of w ast e fro m eac h househ ol d (w her e M unici - pa l Corpor atio n of H yderab ad tr uck s c anno t re ac h it ) an d transp or tin g it to th e m unicip al w ast e bin , bu t als o of integr atin g th e coll e c- tio n of w ast e w it h th e e xistin g recycl in g activi tie s of th e infor m al se c tor . T hi s sche m e c ould , the r efore , potent iall y provid e a larg e portio n of thes e w aste - picker s w it h sustai nabl e wor k tha t is bot h econo m ic a ll y an d enviro nm ent a ll y viabl e . L abour - intens iv e seg r egatio n of wa st e by in f or m al secto r w orker s f or re c yclin g by fa ctorie s, as w el l as th e est a blish m e nt of co m pos t plot s a t th e lo c al level , designe d an d organi se d by th e M uni c ipalit y a nd th e N G O s or CB O s, r eprese nt re alisti c st e ps tow a rd s th e us e of m or e ecocen tri c ap - proach es in futu r e M W M w hic h ar e at th e sa m e ti m e c ost-ef f ectiv e in te rm s of natur a l re source s. 3 Hyderabad’ s community-bas ed wast e disposa l schem e T he econo m ic object iv e s of th e sche m e a re no t onl y to m ak e w ast e m a na ge m en t m or e ef fectiv e, an d to lin k up w it h th e infor m al re cy c lin g activi ties , bu t als o to inc r eas e th e utilisa tio n of biodeg radabl e w ast e collec te d fo r th e produc tio n of co m pos t by introd uc - in g ve r m icultu re an d co m postin g m ethods . T he M unicip a lit y w as esti m a te d to pro - duc e aroun d 66 0 tonne s of or ga ni c m anur e pe r da y durin g 1994 ; by 199 9 thi s w il l ris e to 1,80 0 tonne s pe r day . O the r possib ilitie s, su c h as th e futur e produc tio n of fue l pellet s, ar e a ls o bein g exa m ined . S oc ia l object iv e s includ e th e r ehabil itatio n of bet w ee n 10,00 0 an d 20,00 0 of th e a pproxi m atel y 35,00 0 w ast e -picke r s in H yderab ad by pr ovidin g the m w it h work , f re e m edic a l treat m e nt , allo w in g the m to slee p in nigh t shelte rs , an d provid in g non-fo rm al e ducati on an d vocati ona l traini ng ( New stime 1994). T he sche m e sta r te d in Jun e 199 3 a nd is m an a ge d by co m m unity - or neighb ou r hood - base d organi sation s ( NB Os ) w ithi n m iddle - an d upper- inco m e ar eas . A t presen t, 16 7 198 D evelop me nt in Practi ce , V olu m e 9, Nu m ber s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

4. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 Smal l enterpri se opportu nitie s in M SW M be take n fo r grante d. M isund e rstand ing s pe r sist . O ne are a of unc e rtaint y is th e ef f ec t on publi c secto r re sponsib ilitie s. It ca n be stat e d un e quivoc a ll y tha t public ± privat e pa r tnersh ip s ar e not abou t th e abdic a tio n of publi c secto r m uni c ipa l respon sibilit ies . P ubli c secto r re sponsib ilit y canno t be aban - done d or de legate d. Becaus e of th e em bed - de d soci a l, e nviron m ent a l, a nd publi c healt h a spects , urba n m uni c ipa l servic es w il l r e- m ai n th e respon sibilit y of th e publi c se cto r . A gro w in g a rra y of `m e ans ’ ar e neede d to r eac h an expand in g a rra y of ` ends ’ . Public ± privat e partn e rship s ar e on e of th e m ean s m unicip aliti e s ca n us e to e xpan d thei r c apacit y to m ee t thei r expand in g publi c secto r respon sibilit ies . T hre e de ® nin g chara c te r istic s of publi c ± privat e partn e rship s hav e e m er ged : 1 synergy ( pr ivat e secto r ca pital , capa c it y an d ef ® c iency ) 2 co m bin e d w it h publi c se cto r polic y a nd ad m inistr a tiv e ove r sigh t in orde r to m ee t the 3 publi c se c to r respons ibilit y to pr ovide ef ® cient , e quit a ble , e nviron m ent a ll y soun d m unicip al w ast e m anage m en t ser vices. 1 L a rg e an d gro w in g ne e d, se t w ithi n a w ide r c ontex t tha t e m phasis e s ec ono m ic a djust - m en t a nd transi tio n an d greate r e nviron m en - ta l aw arenes s, ha s re sulte d in a hig h deg r ee of ac c eptanc e of th e pr incipl e of public ± pr i- vat e partne rships . T hi s ac ceptan ce is not , ho w ever , m atche d by a si m ila r degre e of unders ta ndin g of ho w an d w he n to brin g suc h pa r tnersh ip s to bea r on M S W M issu e s. A m uc h bette r unders tandin g is neede d of th e institu tional , ® nancia l, an d e nviron m en - ta l issue s affe c tin g privat e se c to r involv e - m en t in M SW M , an d of th e pr actic a l aspect s of struct urin g a nd ad m inister in g ef fectiv e pa r tnersh ips . T he r e is a clea r nee d to de - velo p a nd m ak e w idel y availa bl e th e practi - c al `tools ’ tha t w il l be neede d to buil d e ffecti ve partne rshi p arr a nge m ent s at th e loca l leve l (U M P/ SD C/ SK A T 1996b) . Puttin g partnership s int o practic e T he type s of enterp ris e s th a t a re likel y to partic ipat e in M SW M pa r tne r ship s ar e fo r th e m os t par t we ll kno w n an d readil y avail - able . In genera l thes e w il l be busin e sse s w it h co m m on capaci tie s an d ̄ exibl e re - sour c es th a t ca n be applie d to w ast e coll e c- tion , sortin g, c onsolid a tion , transp ortati on , re cy c ling , proces sing , an d r e-us e . M an y of th e ne w busines s oppo r tunitie s tha t a re em erging , parti c ula r ly at th e pri m ar y coll e c- tio n an d so r tin g stages , of fe r littl e in th e w ay of econo m ie s of scal e an d henc e favou r sm al l an d m ic r o- ente r pr ise s (B arton e 1995) . M a ny of th e se enterp ris e s ar e by natur e labour - intens iv e an d ca n be use d to gene r at e econo m ic activi ty an d em ploy m en t in th e neighb ou r hood s the y serve . In m an y ca ses , M S W M partne rship s w il l ge ne r at e opport u- nitie s fo r co m m unity - an d group - base d sm al l ente r pr ises . M SW M partne rship s ca n hel p im pr ov e overal l e cono m ic ef ® ci e nc y by sti m ulatin g th e busine ss linkag es tha t wil l re sul t fr om th e co m m er c ia l relati onship s am on g th e m a ny ent e rprise s tha t m ak e up th e pr ivat e secto r co m ponen t of th e M S W M chain. T he co m m er c ia l m echani sm s thes e part - nershi ps w il l us e a re standa rd an d we ll establ ished ; th e ir str e ngth s an d we akness e s ar e cl e arl y unders tood . M os t M S W M part - nershi ps w il l us e onl y on e or tw o of a li m ite d rang e of basi c co m m er c ia l m e ch a - nis m s, of w hic h ther e ar e fou r tha t a re us e d in on e for m or anothe r fo r virtua ll y al l M S W M pa rtne r ship s (adapt ed f ro m Cointr e au- L evin e 1994) : 1 Contra ctin g : whe r eb y a m unicip a lit y aw ard s a cont r ac t to on e or m or e ® rm s to pr ovid e se rvic e s. S ervi c e contra ct s a re use d fo r w ast e coll e ction , transp ortati on , an d la nd ® ll m anage m e nt . 2 Conc ession : w her e by a m unicip a lit y give s an e nterpr is e th e righ t to buil d an d ope r at e a w ast e f acilit y. Conces sion s a re usuall y aw ar de d on a build-o w n-oper at e (B O O ) or build- own-op er a te - tr ansf e r (B O O T ) basis . Con c ession s ar e co m - 195 D ev elop m en t in P ractic e, V olu m e 9, Number s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

5. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 Joh n P . Grierso n an d At o B ro w n m onl y aw arde d fo r tr ans f er st a tions , land ® ll develo pm ent , r ecycli ng plants , an d in c iner a tors . 3 Franch ise : w her e by a m unicip alit y aw ards , usuall y vi a co m petiti ve tende r - ing , a li m ite d m onopol y in a de ® ne d ar ea fo r a li m ite d ti m e. Fr a nchis e s ar e co m - m onl y use d fo r r esiden tia l w ast e c ollec - tion. 4 O pe n co m petiti on : w hereb y a m unici - palit y re giste r s or lic e nse s a nu m be r of ent e rprise s as `a pprove d se rvic e provid ers ’ an d the n encou r age s th e a p- prov e d provid e rs to co m pet e fr eel y to provid e a de ® ne d rang e of se r vices . Ope n co m petiti on is ofte n use d fo r industr ia l w ast e collec tion . Th e Cair o Declaratio n of Principles T he r e is littl e m yste r y sur r oundin g th e r espe c tiv e co m ponen t pa r ts of public ± pr i- vat e pa r tne r ships . Publi c se cto r respon sibili - ties , resour c es , an d proced ure s ar e appa r en t a nd unders tood , as ar e th e type s of privat e secto r ente r pr ise s likel y to be involv e d a nd th e co m m ercia l m echani sm s the y w il l use . T he m yst e ry Ð an d th e chall e nge Ð lie s in th e natur e of th e inte r fac e bet w ee n the m , tha t is , in th e detail s of th e partne rshi p itself . H enc e th e im m e diat e tas k facin g thos e wit h M SW M respon sibilit ies , as w el l as thos e c once r ne d w it h enviro nm ental , econo m ic develo pm ent , an d em ploy m en t cr e ation , is to develo p an d disse m inat e practi ca l tool s f or buildin g an d m anagin g su c cessfu l sus - tainab le public ± privat e M SW M partne r- ships . T a kin g th e m yster y ou t of ` pa rtne r ing ’ prove n an d positiv e aspect s of th e publi c an d pr ivat e se c tor s w il l re sul t in greatl y enhanc ed overal l M SW M ca - pa c ity , inc r ease d em ploy m ent , enh a nc e d over a ll econo m ic produc tivity , an d re duce d negati ve enviro nm ent a l ef fects . T he Ca ir o W orksho p on M icr o an d Sm al l E nterpr is e Involv em en t in M unicip al Soli d W a st e M anage m en t in D evelop in g Coun - trie s pr oduce d a D eclara tio n of P rin c iple s to sti m ulat e an d guid e th e pr oc es s of develo p- in g sustai nabl e M S W M pa r tne r ships . T hes e Pr incipl e s identi ® e d ® ve ke y ar ea s tha t m us t be add r esse d if the r e is to be bot h th e enabli ng envi r on m e nt an d th e loca l capaci ty neede d to cr e at e an d m aintai n ef f ectiv e M S W M pa r tnersh ips : 1 L egiti m isatio n of M SE s an d contra c tua l co m m it m ent s : na tion a l polici es w il l nee d to be develo pe d, an d loca l by-la w s am end e d, to fa c ilitat e privat e se c to r in - volve m en t in M SW M . Cont r actin g ar - ra nge m ent s wil l nee d to be f ai r an d transp a rent ; contra ctin g period s w il l nee d be of su f ® cien t du r atio n to attr a ct th e privat e se c tor ’ s capit a l an d co m m it m e nt . 2 F inanc e an d cos t recov e ry : cost - recove ry m odel s m us t be clea r an d transp arent . F inanci al syste m s shoul d re ̄ ec t an over - al l `w illingn es s a nd abilit y to pay ’ . S ta n- dard s of accoun ta bilit y m us t be hig h an d appl y equall y to a ll partie s involv ed . Sup - por t fo r m icro-i nstitut ion s an d gua r ant e e fund s m igh t be ne ede d to sti m ulat e m ic r o- a nd sm al l enterp ris e involv em ent . 3 Capaci ty buildin g in techni c al sk ill s : m u- nicipa l author itie s nee d to unde r stan d th e w orkin g practi ce s an d th e streng th s an d li m itatio ns of thei r priv a te se cto r pa r tner s if the y ar e to desig n an d ad m iniste r ef ® cien t sustain abl e pa r tne r ships . T he pri - vat e secto r w il l nee d a ssistan c e in re cog - nisin g an d captur in g th e opport uniti e s tha t partne rshi p possibi liti e s gen e rate , an d the y w il l nee d suppor t if th e y ar e to w or k to th e techni c al , e nviron m ent a l, a nd so - cia l st a ndard s m andate d by th e publi c sector . 4 Citize n respon sibilit y an d publi c coop e r- ation : M SW M beco m es m or e e f® cien t in bot h enviro nm ent a l an d ec ono m ic ter m s w he n in f or m ed citiz e ns insis t upo n an d partic ip a te in respon sibl e w ast e m anag e - m en t pr a ctices . 5 Scalin g up M SE partic ipatio n : nation al polic y an d m unicip al-lev el st r at e gi c plan s shoul d provid e f or large - scal e M SE in - volve m en t in M SW M . Publi c se cto r insti - 196 D evelop me nt in Practi ce , V olu m e 9, Nu m ber s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

2. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 Smal l enterpri se opportu nitie s in M SW M S . P au l (eds. ) Corrupt io n in India : A gend a for A ction , N ew De lhi : Visio n B ooks . P C C/E D I (1996) Se rvic e D eliver y Survey : C orrupti on in th e P olice , Judici ary , R ev - e nu e an d Land s Servic es , D ar es Salaa m : P reside nti a l Co m m issio n on Corrup tion , G overn m e nt of Ta nz ania / E cono m ic D evel - op m en t Instit ute , W or ld Bank . T h e T im es (1998 ) `Co r ruptio n crusad e r un - nin g ou t of ti m e in th e M etropo lit a n P olice ’ , T he Tim es , 16 M ay 1998 . The author S te phe n P. Rile y is R eade r in P olitic s a t S ta ffords hir e U nivers it y an d ha s als o taugh t a nd resea r che d at thr e e A fr ic an univer sities . C ontac t det a ils : Sc hoo l of H um anitie s a nd S oc ia l Scienc es , Staffo rdshir e U nivers ity , S tok e on T rent , Staff s ST 4 2D E , U K . E - m ail: , S.P.Ri ley @ staf f s. a c.u k . . Smal l enterpris e opportunitie s in municipa l soli d wast e managemen t Joh n P . G rierso n an d A to B ro w n W ast e is a re sourc e in th e w ron g plac e at th e w ron g ti m e. M ust a ph a T olba , f or m er UN E P E xecuti ve D irecto r Servicin g growin g citie s R api d urbani satio n is a dra m ati c r ealit y in m os t de ve lopin g countr ies . Sm a ll to w ns ar e be c om in g citie s an d bi g citie s ar e gettin g bigge r a s gro w in g a nd increa singl y m obil e popula tion s cr ow d int o urba n are a s. E x- pandin g urba n popula tions , w it h thei r eve r gr e at e r ne e ds an d expect ations , ar e f uellin g a relent les s gro w th in de m an d fo r m or e a nd bette r urba n servic es ; servic es th a t m an y m unicip aliti e s canno t hop e to provid e in th e cur r en t cli m at e of stagna nt m unicip al bud - get s an d decrea sin g extern al suppo r t. T he st a ff , equip m ent , an d budget sÐ an d m or e im portan tly , th e syste m s a nd m ethodo lo - gies Ð neede d to servic e gr ow in g citie s a re si m pl y no t avail a bl e w ithi n th e publi c secto r (U M P/ SD C/ SK A T 1996a ) . O ne of th e m os t obviou s m ani f estati on s of thi s r ealit y is tha t sm al l ent e rprise s a re m ovin g in to ® ll th e vacuu m le f t by th e c ontrac tin g publi c secto r capa c ity . T he se ea r ly an d im perf e ct , ye t in - nov a tiv e an d succes sf ul , pr ivat e secto r ini - ti a tive s hav e ofte n pr e ve nte d proble m s f ro m beco m in g c rises . But , m or e im portan tly , the y hav e de m onstra te d tha t privat e secto r enterp ris e s hav e an im portan t rol e to pla y in m eetin g th e de m an d fo r m unicip al servi c es . It is no w broadl y re cognis ed tha t `publi c± privat e partne rships ’ Ð th a t is , m unicip al au - tho r itie s w orkin g tog e the r w it h privat e enterp ris e s to f ul ® l publi c secto r re sponsib il - itie s fo r ur ba n m unicip al se rvi c es Ð ca n he lp m ee t th e gro w in g de m an d fo r thes e servi c es . W ast e collec tio n a nd proces sin g is bu t on e ar ea w he r e ther e is clea r eviden ce bot h of th e bene ® ts of pr ivat e secto r pa r ticip a tio n an d of th e nee d f or close r coop e ratio n be - tw ee n m uni c ipa l author itie s an d privat e en - trepre neur s (Barto ne 1995 ) . T hi s repor t look s at th e pr ogr e ss to dat e of th e co m po - nen t of an action -resea r ch initia tiv e le d by th e Collab orativ e Gr ou p on M uni c ipa l S oli d W ast e M anage m en t in L ow -inco m e C oun - trie s tha t is develo pin g bes t pr a ctic e guidel i- ne s fo r expand in g th e involv e m en t of m icro - an d sm al l e nterpr ise s ( M SE ) in m unicip al soli d w ast e m anage m en t (M SW M ). Th e Collaborativ e Grou p on MSW M in Low-incom e Countrie s T hi s grou p is an infor m al int e rnatio na l net - w or k enco m passin g m ultilat era l agenci es , includ in g th e U N CH S ( H abitat ), th e W orl d Ba nk , an d th e U N D P (w orkin g togeth er as th e U rba n M anage m e nt Progra m m e) , an d W H O ; bilate ra l ag e nc ies , includ in g th e Sw is s A genc y fo r De ve lop m en t a nd C oop - er atio n ( SD C) an d D eutsch e G esells chaf t fu È r 193 D ev elop m en t in P ractic e, V olu m e 9, Number s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

6. Downloaded By: [Wageningen UR] At: 13:16 31 July 2007 Smal l enterpri se opportu nitie s in M SW M tution s an d depart m e nt s shoul d expan d thei r degr e e of activ e interf a ce wit h M SE s bot h to r ais e ca pa cit y an d m onito r pe r for m a nc e. N G O s an d e nterpr is e de ve l- op m e nt agen c ie s shoul d be encour age d to suppor t th e int r oducti on a nd dif f usio n of bes t practi ce am on g M S Es involv e d in M SW M (U M P / S DC / S KA T 1996b) . Conclusion T he publi c se c to r w il l nee d to le ar n abou t th e w orking s an d m otiv a tion s of th e privat e secto r if th e m yste r y is to be take n ou t of th e public ± priv a te inter f ace . I f th e gro w in g pop - ulatio ns of th e w orld ’ s citie s ar e to be w el l served , th e publi c secto r m us t lear n ho w to brin g th e pow e r of th e privat e secto r to bea r on M S W M respon sibili ties . T o do thi s e f- f ective ly , the y m us t a cquir e th e skill s to desig n an d sup e rvis e progra m m es tha t e n- a bl e th e privat e se cto r to parti c ipat e as an a ctiv e partne r in al l stage s of M SW M . T he C ollabo r ativ e G rou p f or M S E involve m en t in M SW M w il l contin ue to encou r ag e a nd suppor t thi s proces s. Note 1 T hi s de ® nitio n is deriv e d fr om th e ® nding s of a w orksho p on `B usines s O pportu nitie s f or SM E s in U r ba n E n- viron m e nta l F ie lds ’ fo r A f ri c an m unici - pa l e xe cutive s an d ad m inistr a tors , sponsor ed by th e Intern ationa l T r ainin g Centr e of th e I L O, T urin , Italy , 9± 13 D ece m be r 1996 . References B ar tone, C. ( 1995 ) ` Th e rol e of th e privat e secto r in dev e lopin g count r ies : key s to suc - c ess ’ , in IS W A (1 5 Sept e m be r 1995 ) W aste M anag e me nt : Th e R ol e of th e P rivat e Sec - tor , Pr oc eeding s of a confe r enc e hel d a t S ingapo re , 14 ± 15 Septe m be r 1995 , I nte r nation al Soli d W a st e A ssocia tio n ( ISW A ). C oin t reau- L evin e , S . (1994 ) `P r ivat e secto r partic ipatio n in m uni c ipa l soli d w ast e se r- vice s in develo pin g c ount r ie s’ , V olu m e 1, Th e F or m al Secto r , UM P D iscuss io n Pape r N o. 13 , W a shingto n, DC : W orl d B ank . P fa m m att e r, R . an d R . Sc h erte n le ib (1996) Non - govern m enta l R efus e Coll e ctio n in Lo w -inco m e U rba n A reas : Le sson s fro m A sia , A fric a an d L ati n A m eri c a , S andec Re - por t No . 1/ 96 , D uebend or f f, S witzer land : E A W A G/ SA N D E C. Sc hu È beler , P . w it h K . W ehrl e an d J. Christ en (1996) Con c eptua l F ra m ew or k fo r M unicip al Soli d W ast e M anage m en t in Lo w -in c om e Countr ie s , U M P W orkin g Pa - pe r Se r ies , N o. 9, St Ga llen , S witzer land : U M P / S DC / S KA T . U M P / S D C/ SK A T ( 1995) P roce e dings : Itting en Intern ationa l W or k sho p on M unici - pa l Soli d W ast e M anage m en t , r epor t of a w orksho p he ld in Ittige n, Sw itze r la nd , 9± 12 A pri l 1995 , St G allen , Sw itze r la nd : SK A T. U M P / S D C/ SK A T (1996a ) W orkshop R eport : T he P ro m otio n of P ublic / P rivat e P artner ship s in M SW M in Lo w -inco m e Countr ie s , re por t of a w orksho p he ld at W ashing ton , D C, 22 ± 23 Februa ry 1996 , S t G all e n, S witzer land : S KA T . U M P / S D C/ SK A T (1996b ) `M icr o an d Sm al l E nterp r is e Involv em en t in M unicip al Soli d W ast e M anage m en t in D evelop in g Count r ies ’ , unpubl ishe d repor t of a w orksho p in Ca iro , 14 ± 18 Oc tobe r 1996 , St G allen , Sw itzerl and : SK A T . The authors Joh n G rierso n is a n e nterpr is e de ve lop m en t sp e ci a lis t w ho ha s w or ke d in ov e r 30 coun - trie s in A fr ic a, A sia , an d th e CI S region . H is intere st s includ e pr ojec t m anage m ent , traini ng , self - em ploy m en t an d th e infor m al secto r , an d busines s linkag es . F or m an y ye ar s w it h SK A T , he is no w Se nio r Specia list , E nte r pr is e De velop m en t fo r F T P Int e rnatio nal . Cont a ct addres s: FT P I nte r nation al , PO B ox 484 , FI N -0010 1 H elsink i, Finl a nd . Fa x: 1 35 8 9 770 1 3498 ; E -m ail: , ftp @ ftpint er. ® . or , johngr ie rson @ ftpint e r. ® . . 197 D ev elop m en t in P ractic e, V olu m e 9, Number s 1 & 2, F ebruar y 199 9

Dilihat

  • 89 Total Views
  • 67 Website Views
  • 22 Embeded Views

Tindakan

  • 0 Social Shares
  • 0 Likes
  • 0 Dislikes
  • 0 Comments

Share count

  • 0 Facebook
  • 0 Twitter
  • 0 LinkedIn
  • 0 Google+

Embeds 3

  • 1 inswa.org
  • 3 www.inswa.org
  • 5 dev.inswa.org